Understanding The Types Of Bread
And Basic Chemistry
There are many different bread types out there, each one having its own specific features and characteristics. Different cultures all over the world have their own tastes in bread and how they like to eat the product. Bread is made tailored towards the preference and the personal needs of the people.
Understanding The Types Of Bread
Having a good knowledge of the qualities of each type of bread will help you to prepare them. Also with experience in preparation and cooking, you will have fewer problems and produce bread of better quality.
Bread From Around The World
Most cultures all over the world have their own popular bread preparation and cooking preference. These include Asian countries where steamed bread, noodles or rice are popular. However, in the UK bread is usually made by making a dough with wheat flour and cultured yeast. The dough will be left to rise and baked in an oven.
Due to its high level of gluten, the main grain to be used in bread baking is the common wheat. Although bread can be made from a range of flours from other wheat species, these include emmer, barley, rye, oats and maize.
White bread is made using the common wheat. The other types of wheat are used to make a range of bread; Such as spelt bread – popular in Europe, emmer bread is popular in middle eastern countries. And Canadian bread is a healthy bread with a high protein content.
Getting To Know The Different Bread Types
White bread is made from flour that uses the centre of the grain, this is called the endosperm. Also, brown bread is made using the endosperm and around 10% bran.
Wholemeal bread uses the whole of the wheat grain or the bran and endosperm. Wholemeal bread can also be known as whole grain or whole wheat bread.
Wholegrain bread – has many of the characteristics of white bread and wholemeal bread. Wholegrain will have whole grains added to the recipe to boost the fibre content.
Roti – A bread popular in south Asia is known as roti, this is similar in characteristics to the naan bread
Granary Bread – Granary bread is made from granary flour. Other ingredients also include brown flour or malted wheat flour, wheat germ and whole grains.
Unleavened Bread – Unleavened bread does not use raising agent. The recipe for the dough will not include any yeast or leavening ingredient.
Rye Bread – The rye bread is made by using different levels of rye grain in the recipe. Furthermore, this type of bread will have a higher fibre content than most other bread types.
Quick Bread – These bread are a type of bread that can be produced at a faster rate than usual. These are chemically leavened bread, these types of recipes will need baking powder or baking soda. The recipe will also need a balance of alkaline and acidic ingredients. Examples of the quick bread include; muffins and pancakes.
A Range Of Different Culture Breads
There is a broad range of varieties of bread including; chapattis, naan, brioche, baguettes and tortillas. Some examples of bread types around the world are as follows:
Mexico – A common food being the tortilla, other bread types include the pan dulce and Bolillo.
The Philippines – A common bread being the pan de sal, this is a rounded bread.
Peru – A common way to eat the sweet bread of Peru is with hot chocolate and butter.
There are many other examples of specialist bread types in specific cultures. Other countries such as; Scotland, France, Spain and Italy all have their own style of bread baking.
The Formulation Of Bread
To successfully make bread, a basic understanding of the chemistry involved and the composition of bread is needed. There is a range of ingredients used that each has a relative effect on making bread products. Consequently being able to get this right by choosing the correct ingredients is essential to the process. A well-balanced recipe will result in delicious bread that will keep for several days. So by learning how to balance the ingredients, you will achieve the most benefits possible.
Introduction To Bread Chemistry
When making bread it is very important to have the correct quantities of flour and water. These two ingredients will create the crumb and texture of the bread, these will change with the amount of water and flour used.
Bakers have a system they used called bakers percentage or bakers math. This is a method of following recipes and creating a formula. The baker will measure all of the ingredients in weight and not volume. By measuring in weight the recipe will become more accurate and consistent than measuring by volume. Also, it is easier to measure any dry ingredients by weight.
The baker’s maths always has the flour set at 100% and the rest of the ingredients will have a percentage of this according to weight. A typical percentage table can have water set at 50%, this will result in a light and fine-textured bread. In addition, many artisan bakers will typically set their water percentage at 60% – 75%. Furthermore, in bread recipes using yeast, the higher water percentage will lead to CO2 bubbles and a coarser breadcrumb. To make a regular loaf of bread 500g of flour can be used.
Getting To Know Bread Flour
What is flour? Flour is made by grinding down a specific grain to produce a powdery consistent form. Also, flour is the main ingredient, giving the bread it’s structure in the bread baking process. Due to the many flours that are made from grains which include: rye, maize and barley. The most common flour to use in bread baking is the wheat flour. Each individual grain will add to the bread protein and starch content.
Wheat flour is made up of starch, 3 water-soluble protein groups and 2 nonsoluble protein groups. The water-soluble protein groups are; globulin, albumin and proteases. The non-water soluble groups are named gliadin and glutenin.
Firstly once the flour is mixed with the water, the water-soluble proteins will dissolve. This creates a reaction triggering the gliadin and glutenin to form the structure of the remaining dough. When the bread is kneaded it will create strands of chain-like molecules from the glutenin and the gliadin will form bridges between the gluten strands. Also, the network created by the two is known as gluten, which enhances the quality of the dough.
Most liquids can be used to create the dough for bread baking. Although water is a common liquid to use. Different recipes will need their own amount of liquid, a typical recipe using yeast may use around 1 cup of liquid to 3 cups of flour. Although the ratio will depend on the leavening method, such as steam leavening which will use a ratio around 1-part liquid to 1-part flour measured out in volume. A range of liquids that can be used includes; fruit juice, beer, or dairy products. These liquids can add extras such as added fats, leavening agents and sweeteners.
Advice On Bread Recipes
In conclusion, many bread recipes will use different quantities, however, it is important to stick to the ratios given. And with practice in using recipes, it is possible to change them to produce the consistency, texture and flavour you prefer. Many recipes used all over the world will use a range of ingredients to give a unique and creative final product.